1. A comprehensive study of hemodynamics of the arteries and veins of the human body with a focus on morphofunctional characteristics of the blood flow using magnetic resonance angiography and ultrasound methods was conducted. Experimentation with models also was executed.
Qualitative characteristics and quantitative criteria of the hemodynamic significance of the pathological tortuosity of the internal carotid arteries were obtained. These indexes are fundamental importance of understanding the mechanisms of hemodynamics along the main cerebral arteries.
As an application the parameters can be used as normal indicators of arterial hemodynamics in the head and neck areas in the diagnosis of vascular brain failure depends of age and gender characteristics.
The quantitative characteristics of blood movement in the large sinuses of the brain and internal jugular veins were obtained. The effect on the speed characteristics of the blood flow of such factors as vessel inclination, flow pattern, structure of the vascular wall, as well as the cross-sectional area at the extra- and intracranial level was evaluated. Also model studies of venous blood flow were conducted.
The hemodynamic effects of blood flow in the complex system of venous collectors of the brain and neck under normal conditions are described. It has been proven that the venous outflow from the brain is carried out asymmetrically, but in phase, with a predominant reduction in the flow to the left. In patients with thrombotic lesions of the intracranial venous sinuses and internal jugular veins, a significant change in the outflow paths of venous blood from the cranial cavity was noted, involving collateral vessels and forming pronounced asymmetry with loss of synphasic pattern of flow.
Some features of the blood flow in the lower extremities, the small pelvis and the abdominal cavity were studied with MRI, the syndrome of venous congestion in the small pelvis was described.
2. Using two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI, non-invasively studied dynamic peculiarities of CSF in the head and neck, revealing the features of pathophysiological processes in communicating hydrocephalus of varying severity and intracranial hypertension syndrome (idiopathic and in patients with hyperprolactinemia) compared with the control group.
It has been shown that the movement of cerebrospinal fluid in the basal regions of the brain and cervical region has a complex pulsating character, which is closely associated with cardiac activity. At the same time, a predominance of antegrade liquor flow over retrograde was noted. The movement of cerebrospinal fluid in hydrocephalic syndrome, as well as the characteristics of liquorodynamics under the conditions of the Arnold-Chiari anomaly, was studied. The data may be used in clinical and instrumental diagnostics to determine the stage of compensation or decompensation of hydrodynamic disorders necessary for a comprehensive assessment of neurosurgical pathology and planning surgical treatment.
3. An original algorithm and method for MRI of the fetus and young children has been developed. New quantitative data on the status of the cerebrospinal fluid spaces of the fetus in normal conditions and with various brain pathologies were obtained.
Also comparative analysis of the effectiveness of ultrasound, traditional and cine-MRI in prenatal diagnosis of the pathology of the fetal midline structures, was performed. The possibilities of MRI in the diagnosis of cerebral circulation disorders in the fetus were studied. The first data on gestational and age characteristics of the maturation of the medulla in fetuses and young children were obtained based on diffusion-weighted images. The method of fast-lifetime mapping of the macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) of the human fetal brain has been introduced to quantify myelination in the process of intrauterine development. The first quantitative data on the effectiveness of ultrasound in the diagnosis of concomitant ventriculomegaly brain pathology were obtained.
4. For the first time in the neurobiological department, the synergistic spatial dynamics of EEG and fMRI (BOLD phenomenon) was investigated in the process of cognitive alpha training by means of biocontrol with feedback in the mode of operant conditioning (sound reinforcement of the development and stability of the dynamics of alpha rhythm).
5. The mechanism and essence of the method of non-contrast MR-perfusion ASL (Arterial Spin Labeling), as well as the main options for using this method and the range of pathologies in which the use of ASL is possible, have been studied. Based on the data of contrast and non-contrast MR-perfusion, new results of the study of the perfusion characteristics of both healthy volunteers and patients with multiple sclerosis were obtained.